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NOTES - Body of secrets

NOTES


ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THE NOTES

HSTL: Harry S. Truman Presidential Library

DDEL: Dwight David Eisenhower Presidential Library

JFKL: John Fitzgerald Kennedy Presidential Library

LBJL: Lyndon B. Johnson Presidential Library

NSAN: National Security Agency Newsletter

NSA: Unless otherwise noted, all NSA items came from the National Security Agency.

JCS: Joint Chiefs of Staff

FRUS: U.S. Department of State, Foreign Relations of the U.S. Series

ARRB: Assassinations Records Review Board

TICOM: Army Security Agency, Top Secret/Cream report, "European Axis Signal

Intelligence in World War II as Revealed by 'TICOM' Investigations and by Other

Prisoner of War Interrogations and Captured Material, Principally German" (May

1, 1946). Nine volumes.

Lemnitzer's Private Summary: Long-hidden, handwritten fifty-two-page private

account of the Bay of Pigs affair by General Lyman L. Lemnitzer (undated). Kept

in Lemnitzer's private papers at his family home in Pennsylvania.

CHAPTER 1: Memory /


Page

1 The Munitions Building was located at the corner of Nineteenth Street and Constitution Avenue in Washington.

1 Friedman walk to the vault: Frank B. Rowlett, The Story of Magic: Memoirs of an American Cryptologic Pioneer (Laguna Hills, CA: Aegean Park Press, 1998), p. 34.

2 "Welcome, gentlemen": ibid., p. 35. 2 Rowlett's clothes: ibid., p. 34.

2 Sinkov and Kullback background: James Bamford, The Puzzle Palace: A Report on NSA, America's Most Secret Agency (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1982), p. 30.

2 more than 10,000 messages: ibid., p. 16.

3 the Chamber's demise: ibid., pp. 16—17.

3 given its cautious approval: Rowlett, op. cit., pp. 37—38. 3 State Department... never to know: ibid.

3 vault twenty-five feet square: ibid., p. 34.

4 "The NSA Christmas party was a big secret": NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, Oral history of Robert L. Prestel (December 21, 1993), p. 14.

4 "For a long time we didn't tell anybody": Laura Sullivan, "Secret Spy Agency Puts On Human Face," Baltimore Sun (March 21, 2000).

5 "They picked him up": ibid.

5 NSA leased the entire building: ibid.

5 "I do this with some trepidation": Address by Vice Admiral William O. Stude-man to the Baltimore/Washington Corridor Chamber (June 29, 1990).

CHAPTER 2: Sweat


Page

7 "the United States will be": Office of Strategic Services, secret memorandum, William O. Donovan to President Truman, with attached report, "Problems and Objectives of United States Policy" (May 5, 1945), pp. 1, 2 (HSTL, Rose Conway File, OSS Memoranda for the President, Box 15).

8 TICOM: Army Security Agency, Top Secret/Cream report, "European Axis Signal Intelligence in World War II as Revealed by 'TICOM' Investigations and by Other Prisoner of War Interrogations and Captured Material, Principally German," (May 1, 1946). Nine volumes. (Hereafter referred to as TICOM.)

8 Colonel George A. Bicher: TICOM, vol. 1, p. 2.

8 Marshall message to Eisenhower: War Department message, Marshall to Eisenhower (August 7, 1944), contained in TICOM, vol. 8, p. 55.

9 "the plan contemplated": ibid., p. 3.

9 "a. To learn the extent... war against Japan": ibid. 10 "was no longer feasible": TICOM, vol. 8, p. 52. 10 "take over and exploit": TICOM, vol. 1, p. 3.

10 suburban location was chosen: Gordon Welchman, The Hut Six Story: Breaking the Enigma Codes (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1982), p. 9. 10 "was brilliantly conceived": TICOM, vol. 2, p. 1.

10 "Allied Cornint agencies had been exploiting": NSA, Robert J. Hanyok, "Defining the Limits of Hell: Allied Communications Intelligence and the Holocaust During the Second World War, 1939-1945" (1999). This paper was presented at the Cryptologic History Symposium at NSA on October 27, 1999.

11 "One day we got this frantic call": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only, oral history of Paul E. Neff (January 26, 1983).

12 "Apparently they had": ibid., p. 45.

12 At thirty-eight: Background information about Whitaker is drawn from an interview with Dr. Paul K. Whitaker (January 1999); diary of Paul K. Whitaker, copy in author's collection.

13 Selmer S. Norland: Information about his background is drawn from Thomas Parrish, The Ultra Americans: The U.S. Role in Breaking the Nazi Codes (Bri-arcliff Manor, NY: Stein & Day, 1986), p. 102.

13 Arthur Levenson: Background information comes from ibid., pp. 86—87.

13 British policy had forbidden: Signal Security Service, secret report by William F. Friedman, "Report on E Operations of the GC & CS at Bletchley Park" (August 12, 1943), p. 9.

14 "I eventually got my commission": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only, Oral History of Dr. Howard Campaigne (June 29, 1983), pp. 2—3.

14 Swordfish: NSA, "The Docent Book" (January 1996). Among the variations of the "Fish" were machines nicknamed by American codebreakers "Tunny" and "Sturgeon." The Tunny (better known in English as the tuna) was the Schlusselzusatz 40 (SZ40). It was manufactured by the German firm Lorenz and was used by the German army for upper-echelon communications. The Sturgeon, actually a Siemens T-52, was developed at the request of the German navy, with the first units manufactured in 1932. The German air force began using it in 1942. Unlike the Enigma, the Sturgeon did not use wired rotors. The rotors have a series of cogs that open and close on electrical contacts.

Unless otherwise noted, all details of the hunt for the Fish machine are from Paul K. Whitaker's personal diary (unpaginated), a copy of which is in the author's possession.

14 "The impressions were": Whitaker diary.

14 "The roads were lined": ibid.

15 "How are things down there?": ibid.

16 "They were working": ibid.

17 Dustbin: TICOM, Top Secret/Ultra report, "Narrative and Report of the Proceedings of TICOM Team 6, 11 April-6 July 1945" (September 5, 1945).

17 Among those clandestinely brought: ibid. 17 "It is almost certain": TICOM, vol. 3, p. 8.

17 "We found that the Germans": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only, Oral History of Dr. Howard Campaigne (June 29, 1983), pp. 2-3.

18 "European cryptanalysts were unable": TICOM, vol. 1, p. 6. Other systems-solved by Germany included between 10 and 30 percent of intercepted U.S. Army M-209 messages. Except where keys were captured, it was usually read too late to be of tactical value, Almost 100 percent of messages sent by the U.S. Army in Slidex, Codex, bomber code, assault code, aircraft movement code, map coordinate codes, and cipher device M-94 where employed, were read regularly (TICOM, vol. 1, p. 5).

18 SIGABA: NSA, "The Docent Book" (January 1996). The Army SIGABA was

designated M134C and the Navy SIGABA was the CSP 888. 18 It was finally taken out of service: ibid.

18 "practically 100% readable": TICOM, vol. 1, Appendix: "Results of European Axis Cryptanalysis as Learned from TICOM Sources" (88 pages, unpaginated).

19 "cryptanalytic attack had been": ibid. See also Army Security Agency, Top Secret/Ultra report, "The Achievements of the Signal Security Agency in World War II" (February 20, 1946), p. 31.

19 more than 1 million decrypted messages: NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, "On Watch" (September 1986), p. 11.

19 "Overnight, the targets that occupied": ibid., p. 13.

19 Gone were the army intercept stations: Prior to the war, intercept stations were located at Fort Hancock, New Jersey; the Presidio, San Francisco, California; Fort Sam Houston, Texas; Corozal, Panama Canal Zone; Fort Shafter, Territory of Hawaii; Fort McKinley, Philippine Islands; and Fort Hunt, Virginia. During the war additional intercept stations were added at Indian Creek Station, Miami Beach, Florida; Asmara, Eritrea; Amchitka, Aleutian Islands; Fairbanks, Alaska; New Delhi, India; Bellmore, New York; Tarzana, California; and Guam (Army Security Agency, Top Secret/Ultra report, "The Achievements of the Signal Security Agency in World War II" (February 20, 1946), pp. 11-12).

19 Vint Hill Farms Station: In 1999 the station was taken over by the Federal Aviation Administration as the new home of a consolidated radar operations center for the Washington-Baltimore area's four major airports—Dulles, Reagan National, Baltimore-Washington, and Andrews Air Force Base. The system is known as TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach Control).

20 At war's end: By V-J Day 7,848 people were working at Arlington Hall (Army Security Agency, "The Achievements of the Signal Security Agency in World War II" (February 20, 1946), p. 3. (National Archives and Records Administration, RG 457, Box 107, SRH-349.)

20 "They intercepted printers at Vint Hill": NSA, Top Secret/Comint Channels Only, Oral History of Colonel Russell H. Horton (March 24, 1982), p. 64.

20 "For a few months in early 1942": NSA/CIA, Cecil James Phillips, "What Made Venona Possible?" in "Venona: Soviet Espionage and the American Response, 1939-1957" (1996), p. xv.

21 Phillips estimated that between 1942 and 1948: David Martin, "The Code War," Washington Post Magazine (May 10, 1998), p. 16.

21 Long black limousines: The description of the UN's founding conference draws on Linda Melvern, The Ultimate Crime: Who Betrayed the UN and Why? (London: Allison & Busby, 1995), p. 23.

22 the French delegation: Details on breaking French codes and ciphers come from TICOM, vol. 1, Appendix: "Results of European Axis Cryptanalysis as Learned from TICOM Sources."

22 "Our inclusion among the sponsoring": War Department, Top Secret/Ultra report, "Magic" Diplomatic Summary (May 2, 1945), p. 8.

22 "Pressure of work": Signal Security Agency, Top Secret report, Rowlett to Commanding Officer, SSA, "Semimonthly Branch Activity Report, 1—15 June 1945."

23 "Russia's prejudice": War Department, Top Secret/Ultra report, "Magic"

Diplomatic Summary (April 30, 1945), pp. 7—12. 23 Spanish decrypts: ibid. 23 Czechoslovakian message: ibid. 23 "a situation that compared": NSA, David A. Hatch with Robert Louis Benson,

"The Korean War: The Sigint Background" (June 2000), p. 4. 23 "a remarkably complete picture": ibid. 23 "perhaps the most significant": ibid., p. 5.

23 Black Friday: ibid., p. 4.

24 a gregarious Russian linguist: Details concerning William Weisband are drawn from NSA/CIA, "Venona: Soviet Kspionage and the American Response, 1939-1957" (1996), p. xxviii.

24 "three-headed monster": NSA, Top Secret/Codeword, Oral History of Herbert

J. Conley (March 5, 1984), pp. 58, 59. 24 "He couldn't control": ibid.

24 Korea barely registered: Unless otherwise noted, details on Sigint in Korea are from NSA, David A. Hatch with Robert Louis Benson, "The Korean War: The Sigint Background" (June 2000), p. 4.

25 "AFSA had no Korean linguists": NSA, Top Secret/Umbra/Handle via Talent and Keyhole Comint Control Systems Jointly, Dr. Thomas R. Johnson, American Cryptology During the Cold War(1995) p. 36.

25 Buried in stacks of intercepted Soviet traffic: ibid., pp. 39—+0.

25 Joseph Darrigo, a U.S. Army captain: ibid., p. 40.

25 "AFSA (along with everyone else) was looking": ibid., p. 54.

25 arriving ten to twelve hours after intercept: NSA, Jill Frahm, "So Power Can Be Brought into Play: Sigint and the Pusan Perimeter" (2000), p. 6; see also NSA, Patrick D. Weadon, "Sigint and Comsec Help Save the Day at Pusan," pp. 1-2.

26 Father Harold Henry had spent a number of years: NSA, "Korea," pp. 42-43.

26 "When we got into the ... Perimeter": Donald Knox, The Korean War: An Oral History (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1985), p. 77.

26 provided him with such vital information as the exact locations: NSA, "So Power Can Be Brought into Play: Sigint and the Pusan Perimeter," p. 10.

26 "ground-return intercept": NSA, "The Korean War: The Sigint Background," p. 12.

27 "One of our problems in Korea": NSA, Top Secret/Comint Channels Only, Oral History of Paul Odonovich (August 5, 1983), p. 33.

27 low-level voice intercept (LLVI): NSA, "Korea," pp. 47-48.

27 A team set up in Nanjing. .. "poor hearability": NSA, Top Secret/Umbra,

"Comint and the PRC Intervention in the Korean War," Cryptologic Quarterly

(Summer 1996), p. 4.

27 the British had been secretly listening: ibid., p. 6.

28 "clear and convincing evidence": NSA, "Korea," p. 44.

28 Sigint reports noted that some 70,000 Chinese troops: NSA, "Comint and the

PRC Intervention in the Korean War," p. 11. 28 "Very little": ibid., p. 15.

28 twenty troop trains were heading: ibid., p. 14. 28 "We are already at war here": NSA, "Korea," p. 44.

28 intercepts during the first three weeks: NSA, "Comint and the PRC Intervention in the Korean War," p. 18.

29 AFSA reports demonstrated clearly: ibid., p. 17.

29 "No one who received Comint product": ibid., p. 1.

29 "During the Second World War, MacArthur had disregarded": ibid., p. 21.

29 NSA later attributed this caution: NSA, "Korea," p. 55.

30 "The ... last three major": ibid., p. 36.

30 "It has become apparent": NSA, "The Korean War: The Sigint Background"

(June 2000), p. 15. 30 A year later NSA director Ralph Canine: NSA, "So Power Can Be Brought into

Play: Sigint and the Pusan Perimeter," p. 15. 30 "gravely concerned": CIA, Top Secret/Codeword memorandum, "Proposed

Survey of Communications Intelligence Activities" (December 10, 1951)

(HSTL, President's Secretary's File, Intelligence, Box 250).

30 Truman ordered the investigation: National Security Council, Top Secret/Codeword memorandum, "Proposed Survey of Intelligence Activities" (December 13, 1951) (HSTL, President's Secretary's File, Intelligence, Box 250).

31 put it together again: For the Brownell Report, see Committee Appointed to Survey Communications Intelligence Activities of the Government, Top Se-cret/Comint Channels Only, "Report to the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Defense" (June 13, 1952) (National Archives, Record Group 457, Special Research History 123).

31 "step backward": ibid.

31 meeting with the president: White House, President's Appointment Schedule for Friday, October 24, 1952 (HSTL, Files of Mathew J. Connelly). Secretary of State Dean Acheson was giving a speech on Korea at the UN General Assembly at the time of the meeting (HSTL, Secretary of State Dean Acheson Appointment Book, Box 46).

31 leaving a voting booth: White House, President's Appointment Schedule for Tuesday, November 4, 1952 (HSTL, Files of Mathew J. Connelly).

31 "The 'smart money' ": NSA, Tom Johnson, "The Plan to Save NSA," in "In Memoriam: Dr. Louis W. Tordella" (undated), p. 6. In fact, only four days before NSA opened its doors, the FBI's J. Edgar Hoover sent a snippy letter to the National Security Council complaining about the new agency: "I am concerned about the authority granted to the Director of the National Security Agency" (FBI, Personal and Confidential letter, Hoover to James S. Lay, Jr., Executive Secretary of the NSC [October 31, 1952]) (DDEL, Ann Whitman File, NSC Series, Box 194).
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