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List of Abbreviations - In Search of a New Language


List of Abbreviations



ADL Argomenti di Diritto del Lavoro

CI/Europa Contratto e impresa – Europa

BCLR Bullettin of Comparative Relations

Csdle Massimo D’Antona WP Working Papers Centro studi di Diritto del Lavoro Europeo Massimo D’Antona

CJE Columbia Journal of European Law

CLL&PJ L Comparative Labor Law & Policy Journal

DD Democrazia e diritto

DLM Diritti Lavori Mercati

DLRI Giornale di Diritto del Lavoro e Relazioni Industriali

DP Diritto pubblico

DPCE Diritto pubblico comparato ed europeo

DRI Diritto delle relazioni industriali

DU Diritti dell’uomo

ELJ European Law Journal

ELRev. European Law Review

Enc. giur. Treccani Enciclopedia Giuridica Treccani

EurDP Eurpa e Diritto Privato

JCMS Journal of Common Market Studies

ILJ Industrial Law Journal

IJCLL&IR International Journal of Comparative Labour Law and Industrial Relations

LD Lavoro e Diritto

MGL Massimario della Giurisprudenza del lavoro

MLR The Modern Law Review

MPIfG WP Max-Planck-Institut für Gesellschaftsforschung Working Papers

Qcost Quaderni Costituzionali

QDLRI Quaderni di diritto del lavoro e delle relazioni industriali

QF Quaderni fiorentini

Qgiustizia Questione giustizia

RassFor Rassegna Forense

RCDL Rivista Critica di Diritto del Lavoro

RCDP Rivista Critica di Diritto privato

RGL Rivista Giuridica del Lavoro

RTDPC Rivista trimestrale di diritto e procedura civile

SD Sociologia del diritto

1 T. Treu 1994, p. 1134.

2 For an analysis of how the pluralist theories influenced Italian labour law scholarship see T. Treu 1979 and G. Balandi, S. Sciarra 1982.

3 P. Grossi 2000; Id. 2002, p. 505.

4 The theory of ordinamento intersindacale, developed by Gino Giugni (G. Giugni 1956, Id. 1960), asserts the inner legal value to be attributed to the autonomous social norms produced within the industrial relations system (on Giugni’s position see A. Lo Faro 2000a, Id. 1999).

5 L. Mengoni 1980

6 G. Ferraro 1981.

7 See S. Simitis 1994 on the same position with reference to the German debate.

8 A commitment which resulted in the unexpected and tragic murders, at the hands of the Red Brigades, of Massimo D'Antona and Marco Biagi, two of the most distinguished labour lawyers of that generation.

9 Italy’s public administration system was not even able to cope with the challenge of European integration that was speeding up at the time (the introduction of the single currency and the ECB), and which requires models of governance of the economy and public administration able to meet the tougher limits set by the Community. This led to a number of reforms of the public administration system, local public agencies and services, and the civil service as a whole.

10 As S. Sciarra recalls 2003, p. 435.

11 O. Kahn Freund 1974.

12 As S. Simitis 1994, p. 648 ff. explains, in Germany too, social harmonisation and the “convergence” of national orders were considered to be an extension of the German model to the rest of Europe, never as the creation of an original and autonomous order capable of moulding national orders to its own principles.

13 S. Sciarra 2003, p. 429.

14 With regard to Mengoni’s writings on the subject, see in particular L. Mengoni 1966, Id. 1965, Id. 1958.

15 G.Giugni 1967, Id. 1964.

16 Mancini’s essays on Community law are now collected in F. Mancini 2000.

17 And yet back in 1985 Mancini, after analysing that formidable instrument of integration consisting of the dialogue between national Courts and the ECJ, wrote the prophetic words: “The domestic sources are on the verge of drying up and it is easy to predict that, for those who look only at these, the future is bleak: plaintive ruminations about the past, melancholic rearguard skirmishes and perhaps the birth of a new formalism (signs of it are already evident). Why not, therefore, initiate, or continue a dialogue with Luxembourg? I don’t know if this will be enough to avoid the grim prospects that I have described; but I do know that it would breathe new life into Italian labour law and, more importantly, would open new roads for EC labour law” (F. Mancini 1985, p. 493). Mancini’s scepticism regarding the characteristics of European social law and his awareness of the difficulties in constructing a supranational political body did not prevent him from maintaining to the end the hope of constructing a federal European state (F. Mancini 1998).

18 R. Toniatti 2002, p. 520.

19 M. D’Antona 1994 now 2000, p. 351 ff.

20 M. D’Antona 1996 now 2000, p. 377.

21 M. D’Antona 1994 now 2000, p. 352.

22 G. Bronzini 2000. p. 95 ff.; M.R. Ferrarese 2006.

23 C. Joerges 2000, p. 276; F.W. Scharpf 1999. This is the most common negative definition. But see I. Pernice 2002 pp. 511 ff. and 517; I. Pernice, F. Meyer 2003, for an attempt at a positive definition.

24 G. Vardaro 1983, Id. 1982.

25 S. Sciarra 2003, p. 450.

R. K. Merton, E. Barber 2004.

26 W. Van Vergen 2001, p. 465.

27 P. Häberle 2002, Id. 1999; J.H.H. Weiler 2003; J. Scott D., M. Trubek 2002.

28 S. Simitis 1994.

29 B. Caruso 2007b.

30 F. Guarriello 1992; A. Lo Faro 2000a, Id. 2000b; Id. 1999. G. Arrigo 2000 suggests that the concepts of trade union representation and representativity are essentially derived from national systems.

31 S. Sciarra 1999.

32 P. Ichino 2000, Id. 1999,; M. Biagi 2000; M. Biagi, R. Salomone 2000; P. Olivelli, M. Tiraboschi 2005.

33 The European Court of Justice’s decision on the Albany case, which, not unsurprisingly, is criticised by proponents of these positions, constitutes a barrier to this attempt by market values to spill over into the traditional concept of social rights.

34 See S. Sciarra 2001b, p. 241 ff.

35 In the form of a Ministry of Labour code of best practices and indices of circumstantial evidence on unlawful subcontracting and legal procurement of services: see art. 84 of legislative decree no. 276/03.

36 L. Boltaski, E. Chiapello 1999; P. Veltz 2000.

M.V. Ballestero 2007; U. Carabelli, V. Leccese2005, Id. 2004; M. Pallini 2007, Id. 2006.

37 G. Orlandini 2006, Id. 2000.

38 M. Roccella 2006, Id. 2001, Id. 1999; M.V. Ballestrero 2007; S. Giubboni, G. Orlandini 2004. The metaphor of Europe as a shield and as a Trojan horse can be found in A. Alaimo forthcoming.

39 P. Häberle 2001 now 2005.

40 As F. Ost and M. van De Kerchove 1997 recall: “While there is no doubt that legal scholars have not forgotten formal logic, they must now learn the logic of the probable, of the reasonable, of the proportional. A gradualist and relativistic logic that is no longer content with binary oppositions, but explores the boundaries of the law to redress the scales of justice as quickly as possible”.

41 T. Treu 2001; M. D’Antona 2002; S. Sciarra 2005; Ead 2004, Ead. 2003; M. Barbera 2000, Ead. 2006b; B. Caruso 2007a, Id. 2006, Id. 2004, Id. 2003; F. Guarriello 2004; E. Ales 2004; C. Alessi 2004. For a general discussion on the relationship between differentiation and unity among legal orders in European integration see F. Tuytschaever 1999.

42 B. Caruso, G. Ricci forthcoming; S. Sciarra 2000.

43 B. Caruso 2007a.

44 R. Bellamy, V. Buffacchi, D. Castiglione 1995.

45 N. Walker 2005, p. 10.

46 M. Barbera 2005.

47 A. Lo Faro, A. Andronico 2005.

48 There are those who dispute that we can speak of subsidiarity in this case, due to the fact that the OMC involves various levels of regulation on non-hierarchical levels, while subsidiarity implies a final choice from one of the levels and presupposes a hierarchy (D. Hodson, I. Maher 2001, p. 728). It is true, however, that subsidiarity itself can also be interpreted in a dynamic way i.e. as a fluid and mobile distribution of powers. The more recent developments in Community integration refer to this last form of subsidiarity. And this is the way that the term will be used in this paper. See B. Caruso 2004 for a narrowly cast analysis of the vertical subsidiarity principle and the relationship between national and non-national sources.

49 J.Mosher 2000, p. 2.

50 K.Armstrong, C.Kilpatrick 2007; on the NMG see also J. Scott, D. M. Trubek 2002.

51 O. Gestenberg, C.F. Sabel 2002, p. 279; J. Mosher, D.M.Trubek 2003, p. 64.

52 F.W. Scharpf 2001.

53 M. Biagi 2000, Id. 1998; T.Treu 2001a, Id. 2001b.

54 S. Sciarra 1999; M.Barbera 2000; S.Giubboni 2003, p. 280 ff.

55 M.Barbera 2006b.

56 F. Guarriello 2004.

57 M. Roccella 2007, p. 205 ff.

58 With reference to the OMC Radaelli notes: “learning in a political context is eminently (albeit not exclusively) about power. Indicators, peer reviews and reformulation of guidelines produce hierarchies of models and differential adaptational pressures on Member States” (C.M. Radaelli 2003).

59 G. De Burca, J. Zeitlin 2003.

60 J. Cohen, C. F. Sabel, 2003, p. 351.

61 The key concepts on which they focus, and which reflect their basic philosophy, are modernisation of labour law and flexicurity. These are ambiguous concepts which are open to many interpretations, but in the interpretation given in the Green Paper recently issued by the Commission (Modernising labour law to meet the challenges of the 21 st century), with the aim of opening up a process of consultation addressed to the social partners, the national and European institutions and all stakeholders, they mainly entail a generalised weakening of constraints in the regulation of standard work relationships (above all as regards dismissals), together with labour market intervention favouring greater individual worker mobility. For a critical analysis of the Green Paper, see the document written by a large group of Italian academics, judges and practitioners, and signed by several other labour lawyers from other countries (The labour lawyers and the Green Paper on ‘ Modernising labour law to meet the challenges of the 21st century’. A critical and constructive evaluation).

Available at http://www.lex.unict.it/eurolabor/news/en/doc_libroverde.pdf.

62 A. Lo Faro, A. Andronico 2005.

63 B. Caruso 2006.

64 F. Vandenbroucke 2002, p. 10.

R. Salais 2005, Id. 2004.

65 B. Caruso 2007a, p. 20 ff.; F. Ravelli 2006; S.Sciarra 2004.

66 A. Lo Faro 2006, p. 365.

67 See N. Luhmann 1990, p. 104 ff. on the distinction between cognitive behavioural expectations, which are open to learning and therefore variable (specific to the economy) and normative expectations, resistant to disappointments and hence invariable (which are specific to positivised law). He also discusses the conditions in which positivised law has lasting validity and the conditions in which it is variable. For a critical discussion of this distinction, see M.R. Ferraresi 2002, p. 62, who suggests that at present normative expectations are less and less able to escape the cognition of the world «as it is». However, Ferraresi tends to overlap problems of the relationship between what law is and what it ought to be (which relate to questions of justifications outside the norms) with those of the relationship between being and having to be within the law (which relate to questions of the legal validity of norms), on the presupposition clearly that these problems can no longer be kept distinct from each other (on this dinstinction see Ferrajoli 1990, p. 894 ff.).

68 M. D’Antona 1990, p. 117 now 2000.

69 On the meanings and aims of the proposal put forth by a group of European labour lawyers, see B. Veneziani 2000, p. 795; S. Sciarra 2003b p. 449.

70 M.V. Vittoria Ballestrero 2007; B. Veneziani 2006; S.Sciarra 2004; S. Giubboni 2003.

71 The leading proponent of this stream of thought is Ugo Natoli (U. Natoli 1955).

For an attempt to analyse the historical and cultural roots of this approach see M.Barbera 2002.

72 See H.Collins 1997.

73 S. Sciarra 2001a; A. Lo Faro 1998. On the effects of the ECJ’s rulings on national law see also Roccella 1997.

74 D. D’Alessandro 2002, p. 383.

75 M.V. Ballestrero 2000. For more on the different ways of interpreting European integration see G. Itzcovich 2005.

76 A. Lo Faro, A. Andronico 2005.

77 S.Sciarra 2005, Id. 2004; B. Caruso 2006, Id. 2004, Id. 2003; S. Giubboni 2003.

C. Kilpatrick 2006, p. 134. See also D.M. Trubek, P.Cottrel , M.Nance 2005.

78 B. Caruso 2007b.

79 C. Kilpatrick 2006, p. 134.

80 G. Bronzini, V.Piccone 2007, Id. 2006a, Id. 2006b. See also the Osservatorio sul rispetto dei diritti fondamentali in Europa, available at http://www.europeanrights.eu/

81 Wolfgang Däubler 2006 criticises, somewhat ungenerously, Bob Hepple, a scholar capable of projecting topical domestic issues in labour law onto the global dimension (B. Hepple 2005), for doing just this. Däubler suggests that Hepple does not consider how the global dimension has affected the national one, which labour lawyers must always pay more attention to. Däubler thereby appears to propose, once again, an artificial theoretical dichotomy between local and global, between internal and external.

82 R. Del Punta forthcoming.

83 Id.

84 U. Romagnoli 2003, M. D’Antona 1990 now 2000.

85 See the controversy between Umberto Romagnoli and Mattia Persiani (U. Romagnoli 2003, M. Persiani 2000).
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