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2011. Researching the Third Sector through Time: Methods, Ethics and Insights, University of Leeds third sector - старонка 44

:

67-90.education

method: ethnography

prison life

time and space

Agency

social time

Relevance: 2

None available - from intro: My aim here is to show that far from being the anonymous docile mass that statistics would suggest, people in prison retain a strong sense of personal agency, which they apply in culturally appropriate ways to both time and space. It is also my intention, supported by the views of prisoners and staff, to show that literacy-related activities, practices, and artifacts play a central role in this struggle to make sense of the various dminsions of the prison world.

Wilson, M. L. (1974). Space, Time, and Freedom: The Quest for Nationality and the Irrepressible Conflict, 1815-1861, Greenwood Press.political science

nationalism

political time

time as tool for political legitimation

Territory

Changing perceptions of time

Relevance: 2

Democratic present

progress

future orientation

timelessness

Slavery

not available - from book review - http://www.jstor.org/stable/2936242 "The book's argument may be summarized (and oversimplified) as follows: during the years 1815-1861 the three conceptual elements men- tioned in the title-Space, Time, and Freedom-were related in different ways in the minds of different politicians. Prevailing at first was a ttcor- porate concept of freedom," with a strong sense of institutions and a belief in progress through group effort over the course of time. It found expression in Henry Clay's American System and an outstanding spokesman in Daniel Webster. Next to prevail was "federative freedom," which had a "quality of timelessness"; it emphasized "liberty for individuals," and it assumed that the nation's future could be improved not by any "qualitative change" in freedom but only by a "quantitative spread" through terrestrial space. This was the Jacksonians' conception, and it was realized in their programs of economic laissez-faire and territorial expansion (manifest destiny). Finally there rose to the top the idea of "freedom national," a kind of individual freedom that had some similarities with the Jacksonian concept but implied a return to original principles that would justify expansion only for the benefit of nonslaveholding whites. This was the free soil position, and its leading exponent was Abraham Lincoln. "

Withers, D. M. and R. Chidgey (2010). "Complicated Inheritance: Sistershow (1973-1974) and the Queering of Feminism." Women: A Cultural Review

21

(3): 309 - 322.feminist theory

Activism

Chronology

narrative

feminism

agency

action

temporal distancing

Coevalness

generations

non-linear time

history

Method: oral history

Method: life histories

queer theory

historiography

Relevance: 2

epochalism

generations

inheritance

This article aims to disrupt such teleological narratives of ‘second’ and ‘third wave’ feminist activism by introducing and analysing some aspects of the British Women’s Liberation Movement, such as ‘queer tendencies’, that we may more readily recognise as ‘third wave’. In particular, we aim to move away from assumptions that ascribe specific tactics or ideologies to certain time periods or generations. In its place we wish to present the idea that feminists have used activist strategies that recur throughout the history of feminist struggle. Such an understanding, we believe, can help us move away from a rigid, generational-based knowledge of feminism, both past and present.

In our presentation of Sistershow life history materials (oral interviews and letters) and historical artefacts (photographs, programmes, flyers), we reclaim a lively episode of WLM cultural activism. We analyse how this collective work, with its strategically queer inflections, interferes with dominant narratives of Western feminist theory and historiographies.3 In

doing so, we re-locate so-called third wave tendencies such as camp (Conrad 2001) in Sistershow performances. This allows us to question the widespread but problematic presentation of these tendencies as triggering a shift from puritan, ‘anti-sex’ second wave practices to a more pleasure orientated present. In summary, we aim to contribute a playful troubling of both one-dimensional understandings of ‘seventies feminism’ (Graham et al. 2003) and the ‘unique’ legacies of so-called contemporary feminist activist strategies.

Witmore, C. L. (2006). "Vision, Media, Noise and the Percolation of Time." Journal of Material Culture

11

(3): 267-292.Media

materiality

cultural studies

visuality

Archaeology

sound

Technology

Modernity

methodology

critique of discipline

Method: dynamic rather than static

Critical temporalities

non-linear time

Assumptions about time obscuring x

Relevance: 2

Affect

asynchrony

critique of discipline

Why in the articulation of archaeological knowledge have wider sensory properties of the material world been over looked? This article considers this question in relation to sound. It argues that the neglect of sound is partly the product of human transactions with instruments and media in practice. Moreover, the denial of sound as a relevant category of archaeological inquiry arises out of modernist notions of space-time that reside at the heart of the discipline. So while the visual is linked with spatial properties that are resistant to change, the aural is connected with the temporal and is considered momentary and fleeting in nature. Still, it is argued that sound as a quality of things is fundamental to human sensation - to being. In building upon a non-modernist notion of time where entities and events quite distant in a linear temporality are proximate through their simultaneous entanglement and percolation I suggest we might learn what we can understand from tuning into the acoustic properties of the material past. But rather than reproduce an unnecessary dualism between seeing and hearing, this endeavor will require us to relearn how to see and hear at the same time through other, complimentary modes of articulation and engagement.

Wittmann, M., J. Dinich, et al. (2006). "Social jetlag: Misalignment of biological and social time." Chronobiology International

23

(1-2): 497-509.biological time

chronobiology

education

method: questionnaires

policy

psychology

scheduling

Social coordination

Social time

temporal conflict

Asynchrony

biology

health care

Relevance: 2

Humans show large differences in the preferred timing of their sleep and activity. This so-called "chronotype" is largely regulated by the circadian clock. Both genetic variations in clock genes and environmental influences contribute to the distribution of chronotypes in a given population, ranging from extreme early types to extreme late types with the majority falling between these extremes. Social (e.g., school and work) schedules interfere considerably with individual sleep preferences in the majority of the population. Late chronotypes show the largest differences in sleep timing between work and free days leading to a considerable sleep debt on work days, for which they compensate on free days. The discrepancy between work and free days, between social and biological time, can be described as 'social jetlag'. Here, we explore how sleep quality and psychological wellbeing are associated with individual chronotype and/or social jetlag. A total of 501 volunteers filled out the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ) as well as additional questionnaires on: (i) sleep quality (SF-A), (ii) current psychological wellbeing (Basler Befindlichkeitsbogen), (iii) retrospective psychological wellbeing over the past week (POMS), and (iv) consumption of stimulants (e.g. , caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol). Associations of chronotype, wellbeing, and stimulant consumption are strongest in teenagers and young adults up to age 25 yrs. The most striking correlation exists between chronotype and smoking, which is significantly higher in late chronotypes of all ages (except for those in retirement). We show these correlations are most probably a consequence of social jetlag, i.e., the discrepancies between social and biological timing rather than a simple association to different chronotypes. Our results strongly suggest that work (and school) schedules should be adapted to chronotype whenever possible.

Wohlrab-Sahr, M. (2004). "Integrating Different Pasts, Avoiding Different Futures?: Recent Conflicts about Islamic Religious Practice and Their Judicial Solutions " Time & Society

13

(1): 51-70.temporal conflict

law

Migration

Religion

Simultaneity

Shared future

inclusion/exclusion

Relevance: 2

coordinating between different times

Islam

europe

time as tool for managing percieved threats

Multiculturalism

Multiple heritages

Absence of future

contradictory present

In several European countries there have been judicial decisions relating to the religious practice of Muslim immigrants: Law suits about headscarves in public schools and ritual slaughter are prominent examples. When issues of religious difference are being treated at the Supreme Court level, this indicates a problem of social integration in a growingly multicultural society. In this article such decisions are interpreted as an effort to integrate references to a foreign religious past while avoiding references to a future that might arise from it. Through this, the unstructured and conflicting simultaneity of different religious pasts and presents is shaped into a structured ‘simultaneity of the non-simultaneous’.

Wood, C. (2008). "Time, Cycles and Tempos in Social-ecological Research and Environmental Policy." Time & Society

17

(2-3): 261-282.anthropology

communities in crisis

cyclical time

environment

history

methodology

Multiple temporalities

organisational temporalities

policy

responsibility

temporal complexity

Temporal conflict

Temporality of academic work

temporally extended responsibilities

biology

conservation practices

coordinating between different times

Relevance: 2

The execution of successful social-ecological research and the formulation of effective environmental policies crucially depend on a deep knowledge of the temporal complexity of the interactions between social and biophysical systems. To promote a keener awareness of the relevance of time, cycles, and tempos, this study assembles examples drawn from a range of disciplines to delineate the ways temporality enters into human behavior, resource management, and the conduct of social-ecological research. Anthropological and historical studies document the culturally embedded temporal subjectivities that shape the way humans exploit or conserve natural resources. Analyses of environmental policy show how temporal considerations enter into intervention strategies via such concepts as discount rates, property rights and the precautionary principle. The centrality of temporal assumptions is further evidenced by the time-dependent foundations of disciplinary specializations. The likelihood of temporal mismatches between the specializations that participate in interdisciplinary research and between the scientific findings and environmental policy can be mitigated by giving attention to temporal grain, temporal fallacy and temporal extent.

Wylie, J. (1982). "The Sense of Time, the Social Construction of Reality, and the Foundations of Nationhood in Dominica and the Faroe Islands." Comparative Studies in Society and History

24

(3): 438-466.in/commensurability between times

cultural variants of time

Carribean

Denmark

Europe

history

Method: comparative analysis

Development

Progress

Relevance: 2

not available - from the text: This essay concerns the sense of time and the social construction of reality in Casse and in Alvab0ur. They could hardly be more different. Casse's past is shallow and unimportantA; lvab0ur's is deep and a topic of general interest. In Casse reality is shiftingly construed, often through argument, as a matter of received opinion, or else it is founded distantly in the antithetical world of white men's ways and God's word. In Alvab0ur the social order is construed in terms of such portions of reality as historical truths and the order of nature. I also want to suggest a corollary of these differences, with the broader intention of comparing Afro-Caribbean and Scandinavian society. What the Dominican press called "the move to independence" was profoundly ahistorical and culturally threatening; in the Faroes, gradual separation from Denmark has seemed an almost natural fulfillment of cultural development.

Wyschogrod, E. (1998). An Ethics of Remembering: History, Heterology, and the Nameless Others. Chicago and London, University of Chicago Press.history

memory

ethics

postmodernism

modernity

Multiple temporalities

inclusion/exclusion

shared past

methodology

philosophy

Continental Philosophy

psychology

Cinema

Critical temporalities

Relevance: 2

Historiography

Archives

Method: archives

The internet

What are the ethical responsibilities of the historian in an age of mass murder and hyperreality? Can one be postmodern and still write history? For whom should history be written? Edith Wyschogrod animates such questions through the passionate figure of the "heterological historian." Realizing the philosophical impossibility of ever recovering "what really happened," this historian nevertheless acknowledges a moral imperative to speak for those who have been rendered voiceless, to give countenance to those who have become faceless, and hope to the desolate. Wyschogrod also weighs the impact of modern archival methods, such as photographs, film, and the Internet, which bring with them new constraints on the writing of history and which mandate a new vision of community. Drawing on the works of continental philosophers, historiographers, cognitive scientists, and filmmakers, Wyschogrod creates a powerful new framework for the understanding of history and the ethical duties of the historian.

Yafeh, O. (2007). "The Time in the Body: Cultural Construction of Femininity in Ultraorthodox Kindergartens for Girls." Ethos

35

(4): 516-553.embodiment

gender

education

Religion

Anthropology

Method: ethnography

Judaism

Israel

Past in the present

Relevance: 2

feminism

inclusion/exclusion

Critical temporalities

life course

Ritual

identity

women's time

Multiple temporalities

social time

children/youth

Middle East

This study focuses on the coming into being of young gendered subjects through their bodies and their habitus. It is based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Ultraorthodox (Haredi) Jewish kindergartens for girls in Jerusalem, Israel. My analysis explores the cultural constructions of femininity and the body as these are revealed through practices regarding clothing, hair, voice, food consumption, gestures, and whole-body movements. I suggest that the value of modesty, characterized by abstinence and restraint, becomes the cornerstone of Haredi femininity, which is at the same time embodied in "doing," in certain acts that become feminine rituals of cultural affiliation. Furthermore, I argue that the girls embody a unique cultural concept of time, which reflects the importance attributed in their culture to reliving the past as a formative experience of both present and future identities. More specifically, I delineate the development of a distinctly female bodily version of Jewish time, which is characterized by a particular synthesis of cultural and individual orders of time.

Ÿian, H. (2004). "Time Out and Drop Out: On the Relation between Linear Time and Individualism." Time & Society 2010-07-19 18:44 Читать похожую статью
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